Site Monitoring in the Last Mile

The infrastructure for providing services to the end-user can be separated into:
• First distance
• Middle mile
• Last-mile
The first mile includes the structure (data center, point-of presence)
that houses the information of the Web site/Web applications. Performance
measurement of the first mile is essential for understanding the
Success of the data center infrastructure. But, this dimension
is not in any way indicative of the experience. This can be especially true
Just because a modern site is actually a collection of third-party information and Web-services
that do not reside in a single data-center.
The mile is just a number of high-bandwidth anchor suppliers,
sometimes referred to as the Web “core,” which together form the central
Distribution mechanism for the entire Internet. Generally named the Internet, the
middle mile is a good spot to test internet sites and Web applications for
performance and availability. The mile is extremely stable, and measuring
middle-mile performance is an excellent method to determine an individual experience
without adding additional “noise” or variables which can be harder to regulate for.
The last mile is the link between the mile (or core) and the end
Consumer via companies such as for example cable, DSL, dial-up, and 3G. Here is the final
linkage between your Internet and the home. Unlike the center
Distance, where quality has improved consistently over the years, last-mile
performance problems continue to influence the experience.
Perfecting End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 5
2. Business Trends and Last-Mile Impact
The Internet has turned into a hotbed of innovation centered on Web
website and Web applications’ “stickiness.” Web 2.0 technologies are playing
an increasingly essential part in customer acquisition and retention.
Businesses are constantly trying to control new technologies, for example
broadband social networking and video, to give people a more
Active experience. For instance, Nike enables customers to customize their
footwear with chosen colors on the web, employing a single-screen for the
Multi-step configuration process. Vehicle manufacturers’ websites highlight
models in settings that show the car’s features from the
users’ perspective, letting customers not only to consume but in addition interact
with media.
User-generated content (UGC), also referred to as consumer-generated
content, is online content that is produced solely by people. Traditional
media, including broadcasters and production businesses, in this case don’t
play a role in Site content creation. The content might be watched by
Managers to avoid unpleasant content or language or merely to ensure
that the content is relevant for the Site. The internet sites are partially or
Entirely constituted by UGC. As an example, in the merchandise
specification and other details are added to the Web site from the
Managers, as the people add product critiques of these products they
have purchased.
Given a powerful, globally attached market-place, and increasingly mobile
Staff, businesses have arrived at be determined by the Web as a central
Company component, including procedures, communications, sales,
Advertising, service, and recruiting. While Web 1.0 noticed a migration to
outsourced applications (ASPs), the emergence of Web 2.0 technologies
(service-oriented architectures, Rich Internet applications [RIAs], and social
Sites) has accelerated the migration of function from the desktop to the

2.1 The Web Client
An IDC research on consumer online behavior unveiled that out of the total
time spent each week by consumers on media usage, the vast majority of
the time (32.7 hours/week) is spent on the Internet.1 This can be twice the time
Allocated to watching television (16.4 hours). Whether for travel or retail or
financial services, the buyer is increasingly using the Internet to purchase
Products and services and services on line.
Like, in the internet travel industry, great BRITAIN, Germany, and France
account for about 62-year of the whole on the web travel expenditure in Europe
In accordance with an EyeForTravel report.2 A Deloitte and Touche Online Travel
Review noted that in the US, 77-year consult on line evaluations (significantly, their
friends on Facebook) prior to making purchases. 3 Forrester Research found
that 94% of U.S. business travelers and 888-693 of U.S. leisure travelers are
online, making air travel the very best travel product scheduled online within the U.S.4
Trusted online retailers within the U.S. Found a 212-hp increase in income to $175 billion in
2007. This volume is likely to cross the $300 billion mark to $334.7
Million by 2011 according to Forrester Research.5
For financial services consumption by consumers, Forrester Research implies
that with all the S&P 500 increasing five full minutes each year, the adoption of online trading
Refining End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 6
in the U.S. Increase by 327-cid to 12 million U.S. Homes making at
least one industry online per schedule year.6
With Web 2.0, the interactive nature of the services offered online has
become an important part of consumers’ lives.
2.2 Web 2.0
Web 2.0 is method, technology, and applications rolled in to one. Web
2.0 guarantees substantial benefits over older communication resources in the areas
of interaction and relationship building and in developing programs that are
Made up of the others. While AJAX and Rich Internet applications (RIAs) are
two of its key technologies, social media and mashups represent two
Practices that are being increasingly adopted in the development
Group. Together with the increase in internet sites UGC is playing an
Crucial role in providing this content of the many Web sites.
2.2.1 Broadband Video
More and more people now routinely watch films on the web which can be either
User-generated video or printed video content.
User-generated video or UGV is on line video information brought entirely
From the users. Based on Accustream Media Research,7 a complete of 22.7
Million UGVs were seen in 2007—a believed 70-degree increase. The market
is anticipated to increase at 520-square and achieve 34 million opinions from the end of 2008.
Internet sites like Youtube and Metacafe are notable hosts for UGV content.
Printed video material is on line video made specifically to be able to promote
a manufacturer. MySpace introduced MySpace Video, which hosts printed video
Programs with content in the New York Times, Reuters, National
Geographical, Young Hollywood, Octane TELEVISION, Expert Village, and Flow, among
The others. Companies to-day are participating people through broadband and
related technologies to increase brand loyalty and generate income.
Refining End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 7
The Broadmoor Hotel does every thing in one page with AJAX, including
Research, information, selection, and achievement.
2.2.2 AJAX and Rich Internet Applications
RIA architectures reveal the gradual transition of Web applications from the
Basic thin-client Internet browser into a richer, distributed-function paradigm
that acts a lot more like the desktop in a client/server design. These thicker
Person activities are being applied using “client-engine” systems
like Flash, AJAX, and Java using Web standards and standard Internet. For
example, AJAX-based RIAs allow clients measure and report on reasonable
pages which are totally different from the underlying physical page or pages,
Resulting in an improved customer experience.
Appendix 1 shows the crucial differences in the amount and type of data
Moved throughout the Web for different technologies such as HTML, AJAX,
and Flash.
2.2.3 Social Networking
Social media internet sites like MySpace and Facebook are also rapidly gaining
in recognition. According to a Forrester Research report,8 one in five online
Teenagers in the U.S. use social-networking internet sites daily. In accordance with
Yet another Forrester report,9 86% of on the web European youth are involved in
Social media. Many of these websites make income through advertising,
but they’re also developing new business models.
2.2.4 Mashups
Mash-ups are combinations of purposes. Flickr is an case of a picture
and map mashup allowing users to store and share photos. Using the
mashup, their photos can be placed by the users on the Flickr made road,
indicating where they got them. Users can see the images taken by other
Flickr members in various areas of the planet by using this mashup.
BidRobot can be an case of shopping mash-up. It’s something which makes bidding
on eBay far better for users. This mash-up instantly submits bids on
eBay about the account through the final moments of an auction. This lets
Improving End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 8
Source: Key-note Systems, Inc.
Customers hide their fascination with an item, allowing them to position lower earning
Offers and spend less.
2.2.5 High-quality user experience is a challenge
Several Web 2.0 technologies (such as for instance AJAX, Silverlight, Flash, JavaFX, and
Fold) make Web sites and Web applications rather complicated and difficult to
Check with common machine tools. Ensuring a top quality end-user
Knowledge is ergo being a concern.
The graph below shows the difference in response times of DSL users from
three different places inside the U.S. for getting the exact same Web site. The
Web site accessed here’s an automotive manufacturer’s site with major
Thumb application, movie, and a mashup with dealer locations. The home page size
is 650Kb.
As seen in this graph, users accessing the Web via DSL in Philadelphia
Knowledge acutely slow response times (normal response time: 45.89
seconds) in comparison with DSL users in Los Angeles (average response time:
15.78 seconds). There have been six instances in twenty four hours where support was not
available or the reaction time was over 60 seconds. The answer
time continued to fluctuate through the overnight, thereby increasing the
probability of Website abandonment by users. During a new car design
Introduction, high-traffic would be predicted on an automotive manufacturer’s site. Study Web Page Monitoring contains further concerning the purpose of it.
Therefore revenue conversions and the brand can be affected by poor
performance of the last-mile system, as in this case of poor DSL
performance in Philadelphia. As the penetration of high-speed and
broadband Access to the internet is growing, “last-mile performance” still has
significant business impact.
Optimizing End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 9
2.3 Business Impact
The task within the Web 2.0 world is to keep meeting or exceeding
consumer expectations and provide progress in a complex technology
For revenue-generating websites, like online retail, the key to online business
Achievement will be the “money path” – the pair of on the web steps a user navigates
to complete a deal. It is only on completion of the steps that the
visitor’s intention to purchase is changed into a real purchase and
revenue. Bad availability and uneven quality of the transaction knowledge
Might have a major effect on revenue and return usage.
Many sites don’t directly generate income, unlike a retail site or travel site,
but instead focus on customer service. Web sites like credit card, banking, and
insurance websites reduce cross-sell products, costs, and aid in increasing consumer
Commitment by offering customers on line. A poor experience directly means
into increased calls for the call center and a decrease in over all consumer
In case of online trading sites, online performance is incredibly critical.
A delay of seconds bears the chance of large trading losses, and an equally
large regulatory and litigation risk.
For model marketer web sites, a poor knowledge on the web translates to lost leads
and poor brand perception. In many cases, customers draw correlations between
An unhealthy online experience and the item or service being marketed.
Not just does a complex matter mistakes), failures, and (poor performance
impact the consumer or user, it may also have ripple effects. Large
Breakdowns are actually discussed not just in old-fashioned media (newspapers and
television) but by users on social network internet sites who “rant” about their
poor experience on the web, inducing the impact of a problem to linger considerably longer
Compared to the real function due to negative word of mouth.
Complex quality can no longer be an after-thought, since therefore much is
Driving on providing a technically sound performance knowledge on line. Loss
of lower customer care, revenue, bad manufacturer influence, and higher
costs may be linked right to poor technical quality. The initial issues of
Web 2.0 technology consequently allow it to be imperative for the site owners to
ensure the standard of not just their first- and middle-mile performance but
their last-mile performance at the same time.
A typical Web site takes 2–
3 seconds to load. According
to, because the load time
increases to 4–6 seconds,
Consumers start to get frustrated.
The level of stress and
the probability of changing to
Still another Web site increases if
the load time goes beyond 6
Enhancing End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 10
3. Last-mile
Three key access components are employed within the last few mile. They are
Broadband, 3G, and dialup
The last mile has moved within the last many years from dialup associations
to broadband; additionally, 3G contacts are spreading the utilization of the
mobile Internet.
In 2007, the U.S. broadband market included 9 million family subscribers
amounting to a total transmission of 70-percent. This development is expected to
continue.10 On the other hand, whole broadband penetration in Europe is
about 83-acre. Broadband use has grown in Europe from 44 million
Families in 2005 to 85 million in June 2008, a rise of 95%.11
Fiber to the home (FTTH) is the latest type of broadband technology
Ownership. It’s gaining traction, specially in areas.
In accordance with HeavyReading,12 global FTTH deployment is likely to
grow to 89.6 million households by 2012. Asia continues to get importance
On earth FTTH industry. In accordance with FTTH council,13 Asia accounted for a
Over 27 million of the total 32 million FTTH associations worldwide by
June 2008. South Korea tops the list with almost 37% of its families
connected via fibre. Japan and Hong Kong are in 276-watt and two years,
respectively. Despite the fact that the U.S. Is available in next with 3.3 million FTTH
Families, it ranks 10th in the international position with 2.9-litre FTTH market
Transmission. A study by Frost & Sullivan reveals that there were 2.5 million
FTTH households in Europe in 2006, lots that’s estimated to grow to
14.0 million by 2012.14
Worldwide 3G portable knowledge card sales are anticipated to reach $2.9 million in
2011, not quite quadruple 2007 revenue. The global number of 3G mobile
data card members is expected to achieve 144 million by 2011 according to
Infonetics Research.15
3.1 Last mile: the factors
Although performance characteristics change for every entry type, location
and congestion play equally crucial roles in determining perceived enduser
performance across 3G, broadband, and dial-up entry types.
According to the Federal Communications Commission, broadband is simple
data transmission speed between 768 Kbps and 1.5 Mbps in at least one
direction: downstream (from the web towards the user’s computer) or
upstream (from the computer to the Internet ).16 Higher rates help
provide the customer with sufficient structure to aid activities in
Different areas like education, public safety, and entertainment, and so on.
Broadband access isn’t free of performance concerns, however –
Mashups and AJAX usually bring about multiple trips to the machine. While Display
and video increase the size of the files moved, broadband can also
experience poor response times because of congestion. Digital subscriber line
cable, FTTH, and (DSL) all form area of the broadband network.
3G or Third Generation wireless service is an International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) specification that refers to the 3rd
Creation of mobile communications systems. A 3G entry card permits
broadband entry about the user’s laptop via a cellular service provider’s
Improving End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 11
Information system. Including a more powerful relationship for opening the
Internet and the ability to send and receive significant e-mails and acquire
Devices. The amount of support for Access to the internet is highly dependent on
cell signal quality.
Dial-up associations utilize a phone line connected to a computer to link to
The Web. Because the last-mile access option since a telephone line is used,
bandwidth constraints further weaken the experience. Dialup is the
slowest association variety, providing down load speeds of significantly less than 56 Kbps, and
is which means least preferred entry type.
3.1.1 Performance traits
Each of these last-mile entry mechanisms has different performance
The dining table traces different access types and their variation in performance.
For dial-up connections, performance is totally linear to the size of the
pages or files on the page – the page to the larger, the poorer the
performance. Video and display are problems to deliver across dialup. FTTH
Offers unlimited bandwidth but is expensive to deploy.
3G and dial-up network support are far more vunerable to bandwidth constraints
As opposed to multiple roundtrips to the server. On the other hand, DSL and
Wire service are far more affected by roundtrips than by bandwidth availability.
With cable, bandwidth is shared with other subscribers within the neighborhood,
Therefore performance deteriorates as the amount of people increases.
Dialup DSL Cable FTTH 3G
How It Works
These example helps illustrate the challenges of giving constant
last-mile performance. Orders are performed over a Flash-intensive Web
2.0 site using unique last-mile access types. The down load time for each
access type is observed and the outcome are depicted in the graph below.
The consumer accessing the website with a T1 (the mile) connection
experiences an average down load time of 8 seconds. The service is stable
with minimum changes. DSL people accessing exactly the same Website
experience a typical download time of 11 seconds. Dial-up customers have the
worst experience, with the average download time of 64 seconds and
comparatively greater fluctuations operating quality.
Having an average download time of 21 seconds, 3G people did not only
Knowledge slower performance than T1 and DSL customers but also a significant
slowdown of 89 seconds. This results in a poor end-user experience
and possible abandonment of the web page.
The chart (showing each individual measurement) below analyzes 3G lastmile
Company. The outlier points to the start in time in the 3G
Community of 89 seconds. The slow-down of the 3G carrier system is leading to
longer download times.
Extra knowledge let’s delve further to the reason for the leap. The diagram
above indicates the breakup of that time period taken for the whole transaction
Along with for the individual pages that make up the transaction using 3G
access. Here the purchase includes three different pages: the home
page, a login page, and a view statement overview.
From all of the actions necessary to produce a page, content download got
Nearly all the down load time, as featured in the dining table above. The
Website down load took 33.3 seconds to complete. Login took 34.3
seconds. Even though the view bill summary took only 4.5 seconds to
download, the whole content download expected 72 seconds. This step in
Down load time contributes to higher cases of Internet site abandonment.
This problem of download time variability isn’t encountered in DSL, T1, or
Dial-up systems, so we can conclude that the download time variability is
due to the last-mile 3G carrier system. This can be a problem overlooked by
most consumers, that are often influenced by the bandwidth myth.
3.1.2 The bandwidth fantasy
A lot of people believe that the most crucial range in overall download
Rate is bandwidth. This is actually the number that most cable and DSL providers
Market. But, bandwidth is part of the situation.
Clients access the Internet frequently for exploring house pages, checking
their email, buying products and services on line, or doing their bank
Deals. The individual files which make up these pages are on average
Tiny (under 64 Kb each). For these small, more transactional pages,
System rate becomes much more critical as opposed to bandwidth. For
downloading larger files (those with sizes higher than 256 Kb) like Flash
Media and films files, bandwidth is just a major aspect in overall rate.
To ensure an optimum end-user experience, both bandwidth and network
speed need to be evaluated.
The above graph shows a typical example of the time for documents of different
Dimensions over both cable and DSL connections. The wire connection is 10 Mbps
and the DSL connection is 5.0 Mbps. If bandwidth were the major issue
in performance, you might expect the cable company to become twice as fast for
all kinds of records. However, this is simply not the case. For a little 1 Kb record, the DSL
connection was able to get the file more quickly. This suggests that
the network speed (not bandwidth) is much better for this DSL network compared
to cable. Even to get a larger 64 Kb file, the difference between DSL and cable
Isn’t significant. The DSL report isn’t 2X slower, but rather is only slightly
Since most Webpages are collections of documents under 64 Kb, the difference
between DSL and cable (or higher and lower bandwidth connections) is less
significant than one would expect. There are limits, needless to say, and as
bandwidth falls below 1.5 Mbps performance is greatly affected.
For large files, having higher bandwidth does pay-off, with cable installing
files larger than 512 Kb doubly fast as DSL.
The bandwidth offered to the person depends on traffic. Understanding
how records of different sizes perform on various last-mile networks monitored
over a period of time is therefore useful in designing high-performing pages
and purposes.
3.1.3 Traffic obstruction
While the key of the Internet has almost endless bandwidth, the last mile is
susceptible to the total amount of traffic.
As more and more data packets flow through system pipes, congestion
causes longer roundtrip times, slower speeds, and increased queuing. This
situation is similar to public roads throughout rush-hour, when an excessive amount of traffic
causes delays and congestion. Cable can deliver greater bandwidth than DSL.
DSL, on the other hand, does not interfere with the ability to
make/receive calls. The disadvantage for wire is that the more people
use wire, the slower the service becomes because of congestion within the last few mile.
The chart above shows the effective bandwidth and how it varies through the duration of
The afternoon. It shows the drop in bandwidth all through busy day-time hours.
Consequently, the perceived user experience will vary with the time of the
day/load to the network, especially if the past mile is wire. Equally,
congestion on 3G networks in dense areas may enforce similar last-mile
performance degradation.
3.2 Broadband adoption traits and their effect on last-mile
Increased use of broadband technologies worldwide, such as for instance DSL and
Now, and cable FTTH, contains the promise of resolving these performance problems
– at the very least those associated with bandwidth.
Enhancing End-User Experience in a Web 2.0 World 16
The chart below shows the total variety of broadband subscribers in the
top 15 countries. The graph also indicates the penetration in each
America leads with 69.86 million broadband subscribers, followed
by Germany and Japan. Nevertheless, the listing of the most effective most-wired nations in
The entire world is light emitting diode by Denmark with 35.1% transmission. The criterion used for
broadband penetration in each country is calculated as subscribers per 100
inhabitants. The United States ranks 15th in broadband transmission due to
Facets such as location, citizenry size, and broadband cost, among
others. As mentioned earlier, in 2007 the U.S. broadband industry added 9
million family customers for a total transmission of 70-year. This pattern is
expected to continue.18
Regardless of the increase in broadband penetration, companies must be
Conscious of the bandwidth issues posed by services such as
video and online gaming. Significant numbers of companies also provide
flat-rate plans, which allows customers pay a set amount for unlimited
Internet access as opposed to buy each site or each download. These
Usage is encouraged by plans, creating additional demands on bandwidth within the
3.2.1 Broadband value-added services (VAS)
Suppliers have begun to provide quality services to customers as an easy way of
generating additional income. These generally include video conferencing, video on
demand (VoD), IP telephony, Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), music packages,
and online games. While IPTV and VoD happen to be well entrenched attractions
with DSL suppliers, on the web gaming and music downloads are fast increasing
Energy. A review of the reputation of VAS demonstrates subscriptions to
Internet Protocol TELEVISION services in North America can increase from 643,000 in 2006
to over 10 million in 2011, when 7.5% of United States households can
have IPTV.19
VAS, like multiroom DVR capacity and dual-mode devices, also increases
the demand for bandwidth, therefore affecting last-mile performance.
The dining table below highlights numerous broadband VAS provided in numerous
countries. Employees are investing heavily in new IPTV platforms
and selling their services and products aggressively.20
3.2.2 ISPs: Adjusting business models to allow for increasing
bandwidth desire
Videos viewed in the U.S. jumped 450-pound from a year ago to 12 billion in
May possibly 2008.21 The upsurge in online-video viewing continues to drive
Global broadband bandwidth usage. Based on VideoNuze,22
Internet providers (ISPs) are implementing a number of different methods to
address this case. Comcast until recently has been using network
management resources to stop or slow particular types of traffic like peer-to-peer.
This approach is, however, very hard to control and legislate.
Time Warner Cable runs on the different approach by defining bandwidth caps for
Customers for each tier of service. It limits the bandwidth usage in each
Hat, like the cell phone design used today. The consumer pays in accordance with
the rate he or she subscribes for and pays extra if consumption exceeds the
Cover. Despite the fact that the approach is straightforward, it makes confusion in the minds of
the consumers, since they bother about whether their bandwidth usage will
exceed the quota for his or her service tier.
Another, more expansive approach is for the ISPs to use equipment and
Computer software that would enable “managed services” to become delivered in a specific
quality level and in a particular price to consumers. Here the consumer would be
buying a particular service instead of a level. To implement this approach the
ISPs partner with certain delivery metrics that are guaranteed by CDNs. These CDN
guarantees can not, nevertheless, reach into the “last mile” that the ISP’s
Community serves. Using managed companies would also require
fundamental changes in the way the organizations currently come together. With
the increase in material, however, ISPs will need to use
some technique to assure better last-mile performance.
4. Measuring and Monitoring the Last-Mile
Due to bandwidth-intensive business trends and developments in the
last mile, understanding customers’ on the web knowledge, right down to the
smallest detail, is becoming crucial for companies to ensure business
success. While Internet site responsiveness is the key to an user
Knowledge, area, period, access mechanisms, and tariff structure
influence the experience. Web operations teams need resources that
Can inform them in real time when their Site performance falls below
Appropriate thresholds. Thus, measuring and monitoring the end-user
experience in a detailed manner is the key to ensuring an uniform Web
experience on the last mile.
Testing and monitoring Web applications and Web site on a reasonable,
Small basis each day using agent-based monitoring in
realistic yet steady scenarios is still the most used and
Sensible type of tracking.
It is essential that this monitoring be performed from the end-user’s
Perception, representing how online business performs at the
Program, exchange, and infrastructure levels, in real time.
Given the problems with last-mile performance discussed in this report, it’s
also crucial to make use of a worldwide description community, with especially
configured description computers at multiple locations in various
geographies, both in metropolitan and sub-metropolitan areas. And
staying ahead in an industry requires insights that could
Standard an organization’s Web effectiveness against that of competitors
– from your first mile all the way for the last.

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